Old Buildings, New Tricks: Workman’s Cottages on Claremont and Heath Avenues

1323 South Heath Avenue
1323 South Heath Avenue

Sandwiched between a rail embankment, Western Avenue and blocks worth of industrial storage in Chicago’s Near West Side are two small streets’ worth of fascinating 1880s Queen Anne workman’s cottages, on the 1300 blocks of South Claremont and South Heath Avenues. Widely attributed to be the work of architect Cicero Hine, and speculated to be an extension of an earlier development on Claremont Avenue , these cottages were added to Landmark’s Illinois Ten Most list of imperiled buildings in 2009 after two blighted cottages came up for the City of Chicago’s fast track demolition program, 1308 South Oakley Avenue and 1302 South Heath Avenue. With no plans for productive reuse and the potential for the cottage’s abandoned status to attract crime and illegal activities, both buildings were demolished in 2010.

With turned Aesthetic Movement decoration at corner eaves and near entryways, plaster ornamentation below rounded windows and playful variations on layout and decoration, these Victorian workman’s cottages are easy to like, and representative of a period where real estate developers worked with notable local architects, like Hine and his contemporary Normand S. Patton to design buildings that stylishly housed the laborers who would go on to build 20th century Chicago.

The two blocks of cottages have an odd secluded quality, a shuttered body shop protects their view from Ogden Avenue, and until ten years ago, the area to the north was comprised of industrial development, now a series of vacant lots with brick and concrete remnants still secured by chain link fences. Freight trains on the rail embankment produce a low, consistent hum. To the northwest is an all-too familiar, but eery site on Chicago’s south and west sides: an empty residential block completely devoid of houses that still retains its layout at ground level, including alleyways and concrete garage pads. In some areas the ground has settled to suggest the foundation of an atypical Chicago two flat.

Looking south on South Heath Avenue
Looking south on South Heath Avenue
North on South Claremont Avenue
North on Claremont Avenue
1317 South Claremont
1317 South Claremont

Every architectural investigation includes observing what’s not there as a key to understanding what is still present, and how to manage the remaining resources. Each of the extant cottages are located on tiny lots, and have little space between them, which makes the presence of the empty lots on South Claremont, South Heath and particularly South Oakley Avenue a stark contrast. Areas of loss here have been extreme, as historic aerial images of the area clearly show, in 1953, this area was three dense blocks of Queen Anne:

1953 aerial of Claremont, Heath and Oakley Avenue (via historicaerials.com.)
1953 Aerial View (via historicaerials.com.)
1973 Aerial View (via historicaerials.com.)"
1973 Aerial View (via historicaerials.com.)

Twenty years later, loss was still minimal, and the area remained dense. Between 1971 and 1975, the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency surveyed cottages on Oakley, Heath and Claremont, and as the photographs of individual buildings show, many of them had made it out of midcentury madness retaining an incredible amount of integrity. The original building density and the historic character of the area, nearly a century old, had remained intact. So why not landmark the damn thing? It seems to have had all the right stuff for designation in the early 1970s.

Meanwhile, buildings in Chicago’s loop with National significance were being demolished, an era preservationists wish to forget.

1300 North Oakley Avenue, demolished.
1300 South Oakley Avenue circa 1973, demolished (image via Illinois Historic Preservation Agency).
1327 South Oakley Avenue, circa 1973, demolished (image via Illinois Historic Preservation Agency)
1327 South Oakley Avenue, circa 1973, demolished (image via Illinois Historic Preservation Agency)

The Near West Side found itself in the early aughts transitioning from an industrial area, into an area serving governmental organizations, the Illinois Medical District and further east, the University of Chicago. Surprisingly, it’s not until after 2000 that dramatic teardowns occurred. By 2002, the loss was substantial. Many of the buildings on South Heath Avenue had been demolished, with four to five lots in a row now devoid of buildings:

2002 Aerial (image via historicaerials.com)
2002 Aerial (image via historicaerials.com)
2013 Aerial
2013 Aerial (image via Google Earth)

In 2013, nearly all of the structures on Oakley Avenue had been leveled, and a boring three-story residential building had popped up in the middle of the block. One late 19th century building has remained, and over time it has developed a door to nowhere.

1340 South Oakley Avenue
1340 South Oakley Avenue

Perhaps the biggest loss here is that there was a time in history where these two to three blocks were at a confluence between integrity and recognition that was not capitalized upon by giving this area local or national designation. Many of the individual buildings were given an eligibility rating of “Orange” on the Chicago Historic Resources Survey, conducted between 1983 and 1995. This ordinance provides the City of Chicago’s Department of Planning and Development 90 days after the issuance of a building permit to explore preservation options, but in 2014; many of those identified have had their historic character compromised. So is this area eligible for landmark status in 2014? There are definitely better surviving examples of Queen Anne cottages throughout Chicago, with fewer teardowns and more integrity.

While it’s hard to make a convincing case for landmark designation now, the value in these two blocks may have an upswing. It’s a snapshot of what we do with old buildings. For over 130 years in Chicago, people have lived here and continuously changed these cottages to fit their needs. Through changes in the way we live, what we own, how we work and how we relax; these buildings have been altered over time to accommodate modern life. Working class people have been born, lived and died in these buildings. And they have hot rodded the hell out of them!

1307 South Claremont Avenue, midcentury faux stone cladding
1307 South Claremont Avenue, faux stone cladding
1333 South Heath, vinyl siding
1333 South Heath, vinyl siding
1315 South Heath, steel balcony, vinyl siding, window opening changes
1315 South Heath, steel balcony, vinyl siding, window opening changes
1339 South Heath Avenue
1339 Heath Avenue, steel balcony, vinyl siding, window opening changes (although that grill off of the 2nd bedroom is on point, in case you need to hook yourself up with a hot dog in the middle of the night.)

This area represents such a broad range of material and cladding changes, from wartlike faux midcentury stone on Heath Avenue, gratuitous late 20th century vinyl siding, and literally dozens of different fence types across decades. Perhaps the most interesting facade change is the addition of a balcony on the 2nd floor. Roofs are vinyl shingle, wood shingle and even hot tar. Leaded glass lights have been painted over, covered over, or in some places completely removed.

1321 and 1323 South Claremont Avenue
1321 and 1323 Claremont Avenue, various material changes
1301 South Heath Avenue
1301 Heath Avenue, lots of integrity, serious condition issues

A few cottages are derelict, 1301 South Heath in particular appears as if the last inhabitants left decades ago.

1301 South Heath, rear elevation
1301 Heath, rear elevation

In terms of integrity, many of these buildings original characteristics are cancelled out by the presence of an obtrusive modern element, leaving only a few with enough original elements to actually render them significant.

1302 Heath Avenue
1302 South Heath Avenue, vinyl siding, changes in window openings
1307, 1309 and 1311 Claremont Avenue
1307, 1309 and 1311 South Claremont Avenue, various material changes

It’s difficult to resolve this area’s once outstanding potential for preservation against its current condition, but perhaps there is a place within the study of architectural heritage that also includes the research and observance of vernacular, idiosyncratic changes that preservationists fight so hard to prevent building owners from actually living in the buildings they love, own and live in. Old buildings, new tricks indeed.

1330 Heath Avenue
1330 South Heath Avenue
Advertisements

One thought on “Old Buildings, New Tricks: Workman’s Cottages on Claremont and Heath Avenues”

  1. Nice piece! I always used to drive by these houses and had always wondered about them. They really stick out in that whole abandoned and demolished stretch between Roosevelt and the tracks, figuratively and literally (since they’re about the only things above ground anymore). There was always a lone inhabited building in the middle of the wasteland a few blocks east of there (maybe there were two). They used to have BBQs, so you were certain that someone lived there. I need to drive past there some time soon and check out the scene.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s